Cancer of the ovaries is the cancer of the organs for the release of the eggs. It also produces hormone production in the female reproductive tract.


According to several surveys, twenty percent of all carotenoid cancer cases develop in cells placed on the epithelium or surface. These types of tumors most commonly occur in younger women, and fortunately most cases are discovered early, so the prognosis is good.



Ovarian cancer may develop at any age but is more likely to occur in women who are 50 years of age or older. More than half of the cases are in women aged 65 and over. Industrialized countries have the highest incidence of ovarian cancer. Women with white skin are at slightly higher risk; African-American and Asian women are at lower risk. The risk of developing the disease increases with age. Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cancer in women in the United States and the second most common gynecological cancer. These are 4% of all cancers in women. However, due to poor early detection, the mortality rate for ovarian cancer is higher than for any other cancer in women.


Only 50% of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer will survive five years after the initial diagnosis. This is due to an advanced phase of cancer during diagnosis. With early detection, however, the survival of five years later diagnosis can be 95%.


The real cause of ovarian cancer remains unknown, but several factors are known to increase the chances of developing the disease. Women with a higher risk of developing the ovarian cancer are women who:


  • They were never pregnant or had children


  • White women, especially in Northern Europe


  • women over 50 years old. Half of all diagnosed cases are women over 65 years of age.


  • have a family history of breast cancer, ovary, endometrial (uterus), prostate, or colon cancer


  • Have breast cancer


  • Women who have a first-degree relative (mother, daughter, sister) who has ovarian cancer. (The risk is greater if two or more first-degree relatives have a disease. Women who have a grandmother, aunt or relative with ovarian cancer are also in the higher group than the average risk).


In addition to the above-mentioned risk factors, the following factors seem to play a role that affects the chances of women developing ovarian cancer:


Reproduction and hormones.


Infertility drugs that stimulate ovulation. It seems that women who take medication to stimulate ovulation, and yet do not become pregnant, are at greater risk of developing ovarian cancer. Women who become pregnant after using fertility drugs are unlikely to be at higher risk. A study reported that the use of fertility for clomiphene citrate for more than a year increases the risk of developing LMP tumors.


Talc. The use of talc powder (powder) in the genital area has been implicated in ovarian cancer in many studies. This may be because the talcum contains particles of asbestos, a known carcinogen. Female workers exposed to asbestos are at higher than the normal risk of developing ovarian cancer. Genital deodorants and sprays may also pose an increased risk.


Fat. Fat diet has been observed in some studies, as an increase in the risk of developing ovarian cancer. In one study at a level of risk, the risk increases with every 10 grams of saturated fat added to the diet. This may be because of its effect on the production of estrogen.



Usually, there are no early warning symptoms for the disease. Ovarian cancer is often referred to as a silent killer because women either are unaware that they have or have symptoms that have not been accurately diagnosed until the disease is in advanced condition.


The following symptoms are signs of an ovarian cancer warning, but may also be due to other causes.


  • Digestive symptoms, such as gases, indigestion, constipation or a feeling of fullness after a light meal


  • flatulence, distention or cramps


  • abdominal discomfort or discomfort in the posterior lower limit


  • Pelvic pressure or frequent urination


Unexplained changes in the gut


  • nausea or vomiting


  • pain or swelling in the stomach


  • loss of appetite (anorexia)


  • fatigue


Unexplained increase or weight loss


  • pain during sex


  • vaginal bleeding in postmenopausal women


Clinical stages

Stage I: Cancer is limited to one or both ovaries.


  • Stage II: cancer is on one or both ovaries and / or spreads to the uterus, the fallopian tubes and / or other parts of the body in the pelvic cavity.


  • Stage III: the cancer is on one or both ovaries and spreads into the lymph nodes or other parts of the body in the body cavity, such as the liver or bowel surfaces.


  • Stage IV: cancer is found on one or both ovaries and spreads to other organs, such as the liver or lungs.




The operation is done to remove the tumor, as far as possible, using chemotherapy and / or radiation, to intact the cancer cells that remained in the body without compromising the health of the woman. This can be difficult to balance when once the cancer has spread. Ovarian removal is called oophorectomy, while the removal of the two ovaries is called bilateral oophorectomy. Unless it is very clear that the cancer is not expanded, usually the fallopian tubes (salpingo-oophorectomy) are removed. Removal of the uterus is called hysterectomy.


If the woman is very young, all attempts are made to preserve the uterus. Unfortunately, ovarian cancer spreads easily and often very quickly in the reproductive tract. In that case, it may be necessary to remove all reproductive organs, as well as part of the peritoneum, in order to provide the woman with the best possible chance of long-term survival. A fertility reduction operation can be successful if the ovary cancer is detected very early.


The side effects of the operation depend on the degree of surgery, but may include pain and occasional bladder and bowel problems, as well as a hormone loss reaction produced by the removed organs. Hormone replacement can be used to help with the transition.